Rabu, 22 Februari 2012

FIR’AUN MAU MELIHAT TUHAN


Dalam Ta’lim Al Qur’an kebetulan yang dibaca Surat Al Qashash, Setelah selesai membaca Al Qur’an ada permintaan menjelaskan tentang kandungan ayat-ayat yang tadi dibaca, kemudian saya mencoba menjelaskan dengan merujuk kepada tafsir Al Qur’an. Allah berfirman di dalam di dalam Surat Al Qashas ayat 36-42 :

“Maka tatkala Musa datang kepada mereka dengan (membawa) mukjizat-mukjizat Kami yang nyata, mereka berkata: "Ini tidak lain hanyalah sihir yang dibuat-buat dan kami belum pernah mendengar (seruan yang seperti) ini pada nenek moyang kami dahulu".

“Musa menjawab: "Tuhanku lebih mengetahui orang yang (patut) membawa petunjuk dari sisi-Nya dan siapa yang akan mendapat kesudahan (yang baik) di negeri akhirat. Sesungguhnya tidaklah akan mendapat kemenangan orang-orang yang lalim".

“Dan berkata Firaun: "Hai pembesar kaumku, aku tidak mengetahui tuhan bagimu selain aku. Maka bakarlah hai Haman untukku tanah liat, kemudian buatkanlah untukku bangunan yang tinggi supaya aku dapat naik melihat Tuhan Musa, dan sesungguhnya aku benar-benar yakin bahwa dia termasuk orang-orang pendusta".


“Dan berlaku angkuhlah Firaun dan bala tentaranya di bumi (Mesir) tanpa alasan yang benar dan mereka menyangka bahwa mereka tidak akan dikembalikan kepada Kami.

“Maka Kami hukumlah Firaun dan bala tentaranya, lalu Kami lemparkan mereka ke dalam laut.  Maka lihatlah bagaimana akibat orang-orang yang lalim.

“Dan Kami jadikan mereka pemimpin-pemimpin yang menyeru (manusia) ke neraka dan pada hari kiamat mereka tidak akan ditolong.

“Dan Kami ikutkanlah laknat kepada mereka di dunia ini; dan pada hari kiamat mereka termasuk orang-orang yang dijauhkan (dari rahmat Allah)”( Al Qashas : 36 -42)

فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ مُوسَى بِآيَاتِنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ قَالُوا مَا هَذَا إِلَّا سِحْرٌ مُفْتَرًى وَمَا سَمِعْنَا بِهَذَا فِي آبَائِنَا الْأَوَّلِينَ (36) وَقَالَ مُوسَى رَبِّي أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ جَاءَ بِالْهُدَى مِنْ عِنْدِهِ وَمَنْ تَكُونُ لَهُ عَاقِبَةُ الدَّارِ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ (37) وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ يَا أَيُّهَا الْمَلَأُ مَا عَلِمْتُ لَكُمْ مِنْ إِلَهٍ غَيْرِي فَأَوْقِدْ لِي يَا هَامَانُ عَلَى الطِّينِ فَاجْعَلْ لِي صَرْحًا لَعَلِّي أَطَّلِعُ إِلَى إِلَهِ مُوسَى وَإِنِّي لَأَظُنُّهُ مِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَ (38) وَاسْتَكْبَرَ هُوَ وَجُنُودُهُ فِي الْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْنَا لَا يُرْجَعُونَ (39) فَأَخَذْنَاهُ وَجُنُودَهُ فَنَبَذْنَاهُمْ فِي الْيَمِّ فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الظَّالِمِينَ (40) وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا يُنْصَرُونَ (41) وَأَتْبَعْنَاهُمْ فِي هَذِهِ الدُّنْيَا لَعْنَةً وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ هُمْ مِنَ الْمَقْبُوحِينَ (42 (

“So when Musa came to them with Our clear signs, they said: This is nothing but forged enchantment, and we never heard of it amongst our fathers of old.”

And Musa said: My Lord knows best who comes with guidance from Him, and whose shall be the good end of the abode; surely the unjust shall not be successful

And Firon said: O chiefs! I do not know of any god for you besides myself; therefore kindle a fire for me, O Haman, for brick, then prepare for me a lofty building so that I may obtain knowledge of Musa's God, and most surely I think him to be one of the liars.

And he was unjustly proud in the land, he and his hosts, and they deemed that they would not be brought back to Us.

So We caught hold of him and his hosts, then We cast them into the sea, and see how was the end of the unjust.

And We made them Imams who call to the fire, and on the day of resurrection they shall not be assisted.

And We caused a curse to follow them in this world, and on the day of resurrection they shall be of those made to appear hideous.”

Imam Al Hafidz Ibnu Katsir menjelaskan dalam Tafsirnya :

{ فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ مُوسَى بِآيَاتِنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ قَالُوا مَا هَذَا إِلا سِحْرٌ مُفْتَرًى وَمَا سَمِعْنَا بِهَذَا فِي آبَائِنَا الأوَّلِينَ (36) وَقَالَ مُوسَى رَبِّي أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ جَاءَ بِالْهُدَى مِنْ عِنْدِهِ وَمَنْ تَكُونُ لَهُ عَاقِبَةُ الدَّارِ إِنَّهُ لا يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ (37(.
يخبر تعالى عن مجيء موسى وأخيه هارون إلى فرعون وملئه، وعرضه ما آتاهما الله من المعجزات الباهرة والدلالات القاهرة، على صدقهما فيما أخبر عن الله عز وجل من توحيده واتباع أوامره. فلما عاين فرعون وملؤه ذلك وشاهدوه وتحققوه، وأيقنوا أنه من الله، عدلوا بكفرهم وبغيهم إلى العناد والمباهتة، وذلك لطغيانهم وتكبرهم عن اتباع الحق، فقالوا: { مَا هَذَا إِلا سِحْرٌ مُفْتَرًى } أي: مفتعل مصنوع. وأرادوا معارضته بالحيلة والجاه، فما صعد معهم ذلك.
وقوله (1) : { وَمَا سَمِعْنَا بِهَذَا فِي آبَائِنَا الأوَّلِينَ } يعنون: عبادة الله وحده لا شريك له، يقولون: ما رأينا أحدا من آبائنا على هذا الدين، ولم نر (2) الناس إلا يشركون مع الله آلهة أخرى. فقال موسى، عليه السلام، مجيبا لهم: { رَبِّي أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ جَاءَ بِالْهُدَى مِنْ عِنْدِهِ } يعني: مني ومنكم، وسيفصل بيني وبينكم. ولهذا قال: { وَمَنْ تَكُونُ لَهُ عَاقِبَةُ الدَّارِ } أي: النصرة والظفر والتأييد ، { إِنَّهُ لا يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ } أي: المشركون بالله.
{ وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ يَا أَيُّهَا الْمَلأ مَا عَلِمْتُ لَكُمْ مِنْ إِلَهٍ غَيْرِي فَأَوْقِدْ لِي يَا هَامَانُ عَلَى الطِّينِ فَاجْعَلْ لِي صَرْحًا لَعَلِّي أَطَّلِعُ إِلَى إِلَهِ مُوسَى وَإِنِّي لأظُنُّهُ مِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَ (38) وَاسْتَكْبَرَ هُوَ وَجُنُودُهُ فِي الأرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْنَا لا يُرْجَعُونَ (39) فَأَخَذْنَاهُ وَجُنُودَهُ فَنَبَذْنَاهُمْ فِي الْيَمِّ فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الظَّالِمِينَ (40) وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لا يُنْصَرُونَ (41) وَأَتْبَعْنَاهُمْ فِي هَذِهِ الدُّنْيَا لَعْنَةً وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ هُمْ مِنَ الْمَقْبُوحِينَ (42 .(

[فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم مُّوسَى بِـَايَـتِنَا بَيِّنَـتٍ قَالُواْ مَا هَـذَآ إِلاَّ سِحْرٌ مُّفْتَرًى وَمَا سَمِعْنَا بِهَـذَا فِى ءَابَآئِنَا الاٌّوَّلِينَ - وَقَالَ مُوسَى رَبِّى أَعْلَمُ بِمَن جَآءَ بِالْهُدَى مِنْ عِندِهِ وَمَن تَكُونُ لَهُ عَـقِبَةُ الدَّارِ إِنَّهُ لاَ يُفْلِحُ الظَّـلِمُونَ ]

(36. Then when Musa came to them with Our Clear Ayat, they said: "This is nothing but invented magic. Never did we hear of this among our fathers of old.'') (37. Musa said: "My Lord knows best him who came with guidance from Him, and whose will be the happy end in the Hereafter. Verily, the wrongdoers will not be successful.'')

Musa before Fir`awn and His People

Allah tells us how Musa and his brother Harun came before Fir`awn and his chiefs, and showed them the clear miracles and overwhelming proof that Allah had given them to confirm the truth of what they were saying about Allah being One and that His commandments were to be followed. Fir`awn and his chiefs saw that with their own eyes and realized that it was certainly from Allah, but because of their disbelief and sin they resorted to stubbornness and false arguments. This was because they were too evil and arrogant to follow the truth. They said:
[مَا هَـذَآ إِلاَّ سِحْرٌ مُّفْتَرًى]
(This is nothing but invented magic.) meaning, fabricated and made up. They wanted to oppose him by means of their own tricks and their position and power, but this did not work.
[وَمَا سَمِعْنَا بِهَـذَا فِى ءَابَآئِنَا الاٌّوَّلِينَ]
(Never did we hear of this among our fathers of old.) They were referring worshipping Allah Alone, with no partner or associate. They said: "We have never seen anyone among our forefathers following this religion; we have only ever seen people associating other gods in worship with Allah. Musa said in response to them:
[رَبِّى أَعْلَمُ بِمَن جَآءَ بِالْهُدَى مِنْ عِندِهِ]
(My Lord knows best him who came with guidance from Him,) meaning, `of me and you, and He will decide between me and you.' So he said:
[وَمَن تَكُونُ لَهُ عَـقِبَةُ الدَّارِ]
(and whose will be the happy end in the Hereafter. ) meaning, who will be supported and will prevail.
[إِنَّهُ لاَ يُفْلِحُ الظَّـلِمُونَ]
(Verily, the wrongdoers will not be successful.) refers to the idolators who associate others in worship with Allah.

[وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ يأَيُّهَا الْملأ مَا عَلِمْتُ لَكُمْ مِّنْ إِلَـهٍ غَيْرِى فَأَوْقِدْ لِى يَهَـمَـنُ عَلَى الطِّينِ فَاجْعَل لِّى صَرْحاً لَّعَلِّى أَطَّلِعُ إِلَى إِلَـهِ مُوسَى وَإِنِّى لأَظُنُّهُ مِنَ الْكَـذِبِينَ - وَاسْتَكْبَرَ هُوَ وَجُنُودُهُ فِى الاٌّرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَظَنُّواْ أَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْنَا لاَ يُرْجَعُونَ - فَأَخَذْنَـهُ وَجُنُودَهُ فَنَبَذْنَـهُمْ فِى الْيَمِّ فَانظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـقِبَةُ الظَّـلِمِينَ - وَجَعَلْنَـهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيـمَةِ لاَ يُنصَرُونَ - وَأَتْبَعْنَـهُم فِى هَذِهِ الدُّنْيَا لَعْنَةً وَيَوْمَ القِيَـمَةِ هُمْ مِّنَ الْمَقْبُوحِينَ ]

(38. Fir`awn said: "O chiefs! I know not that you have a god other than me. So kindle for me (a fire), O Haman, to bake clay, and set up for me a Sarh in order that I may look at the God of Musa; and verily, I think that he (Musa) is one of the liars.'') (39. And he and his armies were arrogant in the land, without right, and they thought that they would never return to Us.) (40. So, We seized him and his armies, and We threw them all into the sea. So, behold what was the end of the wrongdoers.) (41. And We made them leaders inviting to the Fire: and on the Day of Resurrection, they will not be helped.) (42. And We made a curse to follow them in this world, and on the Day of Resurrection, they will be among disgraced.)

(Tafsir Ibnu Katsir)


Oleh : M. Muallif
23/02/2012

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